# Publications

Twin physics was developed step by step between 2004 and 2020, after a preparatory period of more than twenty years. The history of this scientific process from 2010 until 2020 can be followed by reading the short text added to each of the publications below.

A first impression is given by the 20-minute-long Youtube video below, presented by Anna Backerra at the 5th Int. Conference on Materials Science and Technology (Vancouver, Canada, 2019 April 18-19).

1. **Uncertainty as a principle**

Physics Essays, 2010, 23(3), 419-441.

A mathematical way is developed to combine certainty and uncertainty into a complementary language, in order to establish a link between phenomena at an atomic and an astronomic scale. The uncertainty relation of Heisenberg and relativity theory are incorporated by introducing units of potential energy, called Heisenberg units. In one formulation, called the zipper, their interaction into actual energy is described separately for 3-dim. space and 1-dim. time. A third zipper deals with charges and fields in such a way that Maxwell’s equations emerge in a short deduction.

2. **The unification of elementary particles**

Physics Essays, 2012 25(4), 601-619.

The uncertainty of time is elaborated upon. As a first step in validating the realistic value of twin physics, solid particles (protons and neutrons) and much lighter particles (several types of neutrino’s) are described.

3. **The quantum-mechanical foundations of gravity**

Physics Essays, 2014, 27(3), 380-397.

As the next step to check the realistic value, gravity is described by combining two solid particles. Gravity seems to originate in their associated overlapping spaces.

4. *A bridge between quantum mechanics and astronomy*

Applied Physics Research, 2016, 8(1), 16-40. This was published in a more extended form in: ‘Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol.3’, Chapter 2, 53-85, 2020, Book Publisher International.

The neutral H-unit is introduced, having very much larger geometric features than a charged one, as it does not spend potential energy to charge and to electric or magnetic fields. Now three types of H-units are obtained: one positive, one negative and one neutral. They seem to be the mathematical building blocks of all physical phenomena at every scale.

5. **The connection between gravity and electricity according to twin physics and a survey of the results so far, including neutron decay**

Applied Physics Research, 2016, 8(6), 42-68.

Gravity exhibits both expanding and attracting characteristics, just like electricity. The difference is that expansion occurs only at an astronomic scale, because of the involvement of neutral H-units. This causes the expansion of the universe.

6. **The twin physics interpretation of gravitational waves**

Applied Physics Research, 2018, 10(1), 23-47.

The basic method of Einstein to describe gravitational waves is translated to twin physics, by combining 3-dim. space and 1-dim. time in such a way that they reflect 4-dim. timespace. Indeed relativity theory and twin physics are in agreement at an astronomic scale.

7. **Deviating features of protons, neutrons and electrons on a nano scale**

Advances in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2019, Vol. 3, Issue 1, 9 pages.

http://www.opastonline.com

Two types of protons, three types of neutrons and four types of electrons can be described. This provides insight into unexpected features of nano structured material. Because the descriptions are for the first time presented in a geometrical way, this makes them more accessible.

8. **A shift in theoretical attention for the properties of bulk materials to those of the borders**

International Journal of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine 2019, Vol. 4, Issue 2, 8 pages.

Video: https://youtu.be/vTOu5Jp9Ovw (see above)

The deduction of the central formula, the zipper, is presented in a visual way by using complementary colors, thus side-stepping theoretical difficulties and making the model more accessible. One type of electron is related to electricity at the border of bulk materials; it is accompanied by a finite magnetic field of about molecular size.

9. **Relation between Planck’s constant and speed of light, predicting proton radius more accurately**

Applied Physics Research, 2019, Vol. 11, No.5; 1-9. This was published in a more extended form in: ‘Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol.3’, Chapter 6, 121-134, 2020, Book Publisher International.

A proton has a spin particle, moving across its surface with an extremely high speed. By requiring that both particles have the same energy, using a detail of Eisteins last paper of 1905, a simple relation between Planck’s constant and the speed of light is obtained. In principle, this confirms the validity of twin physics at all scales.

10. *The importance of magnetism in understanding the impact of the corona virus*

Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery 2020, Vol. 10 Issue 2 No: 166

Twin physics is transformed into the twin model, which can be applied to humans. In this view, each function of the body switches between two complementary phases. The brain does not have a physical complement but a magnetic one, called the magnetic organ. Because the corona virus seems to be associated to this organ and because it is often underdeveloped, people may be extremely sensitive to it.

11. *Four types of electrons and their associated finite magnetic fields*

Nano Progress, (2021) 3(5), 17-33.

To be able to consider large molecules, junction rules for the interaction between many units are defined. Using these rules, four types of electrons are described. Of each electron the features and occurrence are considered, the way of transformation from one type into another and the possible bond with a proton.

**Twin Physics, the complementary Model of Phenomena**

Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, 2018, 217 pages.

https://www.morebooks.shop/store/gb/book/twin-physics-the-complementary-model-of-phenomena/isbn/978-613-8-38735-0

This book contains papers 1 through 6 in a more elaborated way.

Twin physics represents a dualistic way of considering the universe, based on the concept that determinate and indeterminate aspects of a phenomenon are mutually independent and occur jointly in nature. Space is considered as a finite, independent entity, having a potential equal to that of mass. The quantization of Planck and the uncertainty relations of Heisenberg are incorporated from the onset.

The key component in the theory is the Heisenberg-unit, defined as a constant amount of potential energy. The unit is supplied with mathematical attributes of time, space and charge. By interaction, this potential energy is transformed into actual energy, i.e. in physical items. In this way elementary particles such as the neutron, proton, electron, neutrino and Higgs particle can be described. The spin of a particle may be provided by a spin particle. Neutron decay, black holes and gravitational waves are described in detail.